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Table 3 Univariable associations and multivariable associations with successful TESE and live birth

From: Can preoperative parameters predict successful sperm retrieval and live birth in couples undergoing testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection for azoospermia?

  Successful TESE (n=414 couples, N=223) Live birth (n=284 cycles, N=91)
Univariable associations OR (95% CI); p value OR (95% CI); p value
 Male age (years)a 1.05 (1.01-1.08); p=0.009 0.93 (0.89-0.98); p=0.006
 Female age (years)a 1.08 (1.03-1.13); p=0.002 0.89 (0.83-0.94); p=<0.001
 Male FSH (IU/L)a 0.87 (0.84-0.90); p=<0.001 0.97 (0.92-1.01); p=0.15
 Male LH (IU/L)a 0.79 (0.73-0.85); p=<0.001 1.00 (0.91-1.10); p=0.99
 Male testosterone (nmol/L)a 0.99 (0.96-1.03); p=0.67 1.04 (0.99-1.09); p=0.15
 Testicular volume <15ml 0.42 (0.28-0.64); p=<0.001 1.96 (1.06-3.62); p=0.032
Multivariable models
 Male age (years)a 1.08 (1.03-1.12); p=0.001  
 Female age (years)a   0.88 (0.82-0.95); p=<0.001
 Male FSH (IU/L)a 0.77 (0.71-0.83); p=<0.001 0.94 (0.87-1.02); p=0.128
 Male FSH2 (IU/L) 1.00 (1.00-1.01); p=0.001  
 Male LH (IU/L)a   
 Male testosterone (nmol/L)a 0.96 (0.92-1.00); p=0.065  
 Testicular volume <15ml   2.93 (1.37-6.32); p=0.006
 ICSI cycle number (≥3)   0.27 (0.09-0.80); p=0.018
  1. aOdds ratios are per one-unit increase